Preventing bird flu

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Avian Influenza Prevention Zone Winter 20/21

There is currently an Avian Influenza Prevention Zone (AIPZ) in place across England, Wales and Scotland. Despite the housing measures being lifted there is still a threat that birds can contract avian influenza (bird flu) so high levels of biosecurity are key to preventing any further outbreaks.

By law, all poultry and captive bird keepers must implement these mandatory biosecurity measures to help protect their birds:

Protecting your bird’s welfare:

  • Ducks and geese should not be kept together with other poultry species
  • Fence off access to ponds, standing water and waterlogged areas
  • Control parasites such as red mite, ask your local vet for advice
  • All outdoor areas your birds have access to should be fenced off

Reducing the risk of bird flu from the environment:

  • Store feed, water and bedding supplies indoors
  • Provide food and water undercover and prevent wild bird access
  • Ensure there is effective vermin control
  • All walkways and paths which your birds or wild birds have access to must be regularly cleaned and disinfected
  • Regularly inspect the outdoor area to ensure it is not contaminated with feathers, carcasses and faecal matter from wild birds
  • Proactive measures should be in place to discourage wild birds from the outdoor area
  • Minimise movements in and out of any areas your birds have access to
  • Clean footwear before and after entering the enclosure

Do you know what measures you must take in the new prevention zone? Download our handy flowchart to work out what you need to do now.

​The NFU's biosecurity infographic poster is a useful tool to visually see biosecurity measures. Download, print and share copies with poultry keepers so they can keep their birds safe. 

AI March 2021 update_77847​​

How is bird flu spread?

Bird flu (Avian Influenza) is spread by direct contact between birds, and through contamination in the environment, for example in bird droppings. This means wild birds carrying the disease can infect domestic poultry, so the best way to reduce the risk of your poultry catching bird flu is to minimise the chance of them coming into contact with wild birds or their droppings by practising good biosecurity and safety measures.

The winter means a reduction in natural foods so wild birds will seek out poultry feed and water during the tough months, and migratory birds begin to arrive from the Continent.

To help prevent the spread of the disease it is important to review the biosecurity measures that are in place in the flock currently. This in turn will protect your own flock, other backyard farmers and support British poultry. Below are pointers of how to achieve high levels of biosecurity.

Winter action - increased biosecurity

It’s a good idea to review your biosecurity measures in the winter months and take action to:

  • Minimise movement in and out of your bird enclosure.
  • Clean footwear before and after visiting your birds.
  • Minimise movement in and out of bird enclosures.
  • Keep bird enclosures clean and tidy and regularly disinfect any hard surfaces.
  • Humanely control rats and mice.
  • Place birds’ food and water in fully enclosed areas that wild birds cannot access, and remove any spilled feed.
  • Keep your birds separate from wildlife and wild waterfowl by putting suitable fencing around the outdoor areas they access.
  • Ensure the areas where birds are kept are unattractive to wild birds. For example, by netting ponds and by removing wild bird food sources.
  • Make sure equipment, feed and bedding are stored undercover so they cannot be contaminated by wild birds.
  • Reduce any existing contamination by cleansing and disinfecting concrete areas, and fencing off wet or boggy areas.

Useful resources

Avian Influenza top tips card_76416​​

The NFU's Avian Influenza top tips card is also a useful, printable resource that explains the key biosecurity measures and who to contact should you suspect a case. Download it here.

How to spot avian influenza

There are 2 types of avian influenza – High Pathogenicity (HPAI) or Low Pathogenicity (LPAI). HPAI is the more serious type. It is often fatal in birds. The main clinical signs of HPAI in birds are:

  • swollen head
  • blue discolouration of neck and throat
  • loss of appetite
  • respiratory distress such as gaping beak, coughing, sneezing, gurgling, rattling
  • diarrhoea
  • fewer eggs laid
  • increased mortality

Clinical signs can vary between species of bird and some species (for example, ducks and geese) may show minimal clinical signs.

Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) is usually less serious. It can cause mild breathing problems, but affected birds will not always show clear signs of infection. The severity of LPAI depends on the type of bird and whether it has any other illnesses. Anyone who keeps poultry must keep a close watch on them for any signs of disease, and must seek prompt advice from their vet if they have any concerns. Avian Influenza is a notifiable disease meaning it is a legal requirement to report any suspicion of disease.

Online tool for poultry keepers

A new online ‘chicken dashboard’ is intended for use by poultry owners and small producers and their vets. It should serve as an invaluable resource for up-to-date information on disease and health issues in small and backyard flocks, from egg peritonitis and red mite to Marek’s disease. The dashboard can be accessed via

To receive the latest news and advice should there be a Bird Flu outbreak, poultry keepers can sign up to the APHA poultry register. The NFU recommends that anyone with poultry or captive birds, no matter how many are in the flock, should register for free by clicking here or via the helpline on 03000 200 301.

If you suspect Avian Influenza in your flock, please contact your vet immediately.

If a member of the public finds dead wild waterfowl (swans, geese or ducks) or other dead wild birds, such as gulls or birds of prey, 
they should not touch them and report them to the Defra helpline: 03459 33 55 77.

Last edited: 01 April 2021 at 14:28

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